Impact of Pharmacotherapy on Drug Delivery Systems

IntroductionPharmacotherapy can be defined as the treatment and prevention of illness and disease by means of drugs of chemical or biological origin. It ranks among the most important methods of medical treatment, together with surgery, physical treatment, radiation and psychotherapy. Although it is almost impossible to estimate the exact extent of the impact of pharmacotherapy on human health, there can be no doubt that pharmacotherapy, together with improved sanitation, better diet and better housing, has improved people’s health, life expectancy and quality of life.Unprecedented developments in genomics and molecular biology today offer a plethora of new drug targets. The use of modern chemical synthetic methods (such as combinatorial chemistry) enables the synthesis of a large number of new drug candidates in shorter times than ever before. At the same time, a better understanding of the immune system and rapid progress in molecular biology, cell biology and microbiology allow the development of modern vaccines against old and new challenges.However, for all these exciting new drug and vaccine candidates, it is necessary to develop suitable dosage forms or drug delivery systems to allow the effective, safe and reliable application of these bioactive compounds to the patient. It is important to realize that the active ingredient is just one part of the medicine administered to the patient and it is the formulation of the drug into a dosage form or drug delivery system that translates drug discovery and pharmacological research into clinical practice.Indeed the drug delivery system employed plays a vital role in controlling the pharmacological effect of the drug as it can influence the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug, the rate of drug release, the site and duration of drug action and subsequently the side-effect profile. An optimal drug delivery system ensures that the active drug is available at the site of action for the correct time and duration.Drug delivery systemsDrug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.· Drug delivery systems according to the physical stateBased on physical state, drug delivery systems may be:- Gaseous (e.g. anaesthetics),- Liquid (e.g. solutions, emulsions, suspensions),- Semisolid (e.g. creams, ointments, gels and pastes) and- Solid dosage forms (e.g. powders, granules, tablets and capsules).· Drug delivery systems according to route of administrationAnother way of differentiating dosage forms is according to their site or route of administration.- Parenteral drug delivery: Drugs can be administered directly into the body, through injection or infusion. Depending on the site of administration into the body it can be differentiated into:a) Subcutaneous injectionb) Intramuscular injectionc) Intravenous injectiond) Intradermal injectione) Intraperitoneal injection- Oral drug delivery: The oral route is the most popular route to administer drugs. Suspensions, tablets, capsules,etc are administered through this route.- Topical drug delivery: Drugs can also be administered on to the skin to enter into the body. Mostly semisolid dosage forms are used for this, including creams, ointments, gels and pastes. However, liquid dosage forms, such as emulsions, or solid dosage forms, such as transdermal controlled drug delivery systems (patches), can also be used.- Transmucosal: In this drugs are administered hrough nasal, buccal/sublingual, vaginal, ocular and rectal routes.· Drug delivery systems according to mechanism of drug releaseAnother system that can be used to differentiate drug delivery systems is according to the way the drug is released. It can be differentiated as:- Immediate release – drug is released immediately after administration.- Modified release – drug release only occurs sometime after the administration or for a prolonged period of time or to a specific target in the body. Modified-release systems can be further classified as:a) Delayed release: drug is released only at some point after the initial administration.b) Extended release: prolongs the release to reduce dosing frequency- Sustained release: These systems maintain the rate of drug release over a sustained period of time.- Controlled release: Controlled-release systems also offer a sustained-release profile but, in contrast to sustained-release forms, controlled-release systems are designed to lead to predictably constant plasma concentrations, independently of the biological environment of the application site. This means that they are actually controlling the drug concentration in the body, not just the release of the drug from the dosage form, as is the case in a sustained-release system.- Targeted drug delivery (smart drug delivery): It is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. The goal of a targeted drug delivery system is to prolong, localize, target and have a protected drug interaction with the diseased tissue.Disease and Design of drug delivery systemA disease is an abnormal condition that affects the body of an organism. It is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. It may be caused by factors originally from an external source, such as infectious disease, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions, such as autoimmune diseases, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and a typical variations of structure and function.Medical therapies are efforts to cure or improve a disease or other health problem. A number of drug molecules have already been developed but development of further more new drug molecule is expensive and time consuming. So, improving efficacy ratio of “old” drugs is considered a good idea. This has been attempted by developing new drug delivery systems that helps in individualizing drug therapy, dose titration, and therapeutic drug monitoring easily. Delivering drug at controlled rate, slow delivery, targeted delivery are very attractive methods and have been pursued vigorously. Drug delivery systems modify drug release profile, absorption, distribution and elimination for the benefit of improving product efficacy and safety. It also ensures patient convenience and compliance.There are some drug molecules which show site specific drug release eg, peptides and proteins. Such drugs cannot show their action without appropriate drug delivery system. So,the increasing number of peptide and protein drugs being investigated demands the development of dosage forms which exhibit site-specific release. Delivery of drugs into systemic circulation through colonic absorption represents a novel mode of introducing peptide and protein drug molecules and drugs that are poorly absorbed from the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Oral colon-specific drug delivery systems offer obvious advantages over parenteral administration. Colon targeting is naturally of value for the topical treatment of diseases of the colon such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. Sustained colonic release of drugs can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma, angina and arthritis. Peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides and vaccines are the potential candidates of interest for colon-specific drug delivery. Sulfasalazine, ipsalazide and olsalazine have been developed as colon-specific delivery systems for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).Worldwide, over 40 million people are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) combines at least three antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and, for over a decade, has been used to extend the lifespan of the HIV-infected patients. Chronic intake of HAART is mandatory to control HIV infection. The frequent administration of several drugs in relatively high doses is a main cause of patient incompliance and a hurdle toward the fulfillment of the pharmacotherapy. High adherence to HAART does not lead to complete HIV virus elimination from the host. Intracellular and anatomical viral reservoirs are responsible for the perpetuation of the infection. Active transport mechanisms involving proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily prevent the penetration of ARV drugs into the brain and may account for the limited bioavailability after oral administration. A new research that addresses from simple organoleptic or technological problems to more complex issues involving the targeting of specific tissues and organs has emerged. With the aim to reduce dosing frequency, to improve the compliance of the existing pharmacotherapy and to target viral reservoirs, the design of drug delivery systems is becoming complementary to new drug discovery.ConclusionWhenever a person suffers from a disease, he/she requires a medical treatment and every one of us prefer the safe, effective, economic and a convenient one. This can only be achieved by development of appropriate drug delivery system. No matter how dosage forms are classified, the role of the drug delivery systems is to allow the effective, safe, and reliable application of the drug to the patient.For the proper Pharmacotherapy, delivery systems should allow and facilitate the drug to reach its target site in the body. For example, a tablet formulation containing an antihypertensive drug must disintegrate in the gastrointestinal tract, the drug needs to dissolve and the dissolved drug needs to permeate across the mucosal membrane of the gastrointestinal tract into the body. So, for the development of dosage forms the formulation scientist needs to optimize the bioavailability of the drug.Similarly, the delivery system is to allow the safe application of the drug. This includes that the drug in the formulation must be chemically, physically and microbiologically stable. Side-effects of the drug and drug interactions should be avoided or minimized by the use of suitable drug delivery systems. The delivery systems also need to improve the patient’s compliance with the pharmacotherapy by the development of convenient applications. For example, one can improve patient compliance by developing an oral dosage form where previously only parenteral application was possible.Finally, the delivery system needs to be reliable and its formulation needs to be technically feasible. However, for any application of a drug delivery system on the market, the dosage form needs to be produced in large quantities and at low costs to make affordable medicines available. Therefore, it is also necessary to investigate the feasibility of the developed systems to be scaled up from the laboratory to the production scale.

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Clarity And Success

Clarity is one of the aspects of success. You must have clarity of vision in order to succeed. It is defined as sometimes that “Aha” moment. That is when you have had the cognition that what the truth is for your vision. Clarity can not survive a vague reference of vision.If you take the statement “Crystal Clear” which infers that there is no obstruction in one vision, this is what your concept should appear like in your mind’s eye. To be clear is to have an absence of any question in your own mind. You see it completely and conceptually in other words you own it.There are many levels of clarity when it comes to the concept of clarity, that which is of physical nature and that which is of a mental nature and of course that which touches upon the spirit.We are talking about the subjective self. We are not looking at clarity from the prospective of an object. This clarity is not tangible therefore we can not touch it. Hind site is the usual way people actually experience any clarity. Yet the clarity that I am talking about is one of the Observer and that is you. When one is first involved in a new idea, the first impulse is to find a point of reference. If a reference is not found, you will be led by your prior conditioning into confusion. If I said to you “Blassat” you would not have a point of reference. You will simply write it off as gibberish. Now if I define this term as “A Glass That Is Tipping” now you have a picture in other words clarity. Re-read the definition above right now three times.It is so often spoken to have clarity in vision, to be clear as to why you are doing something, or about your goals. Too many people jump off “thinking” that they are clear yet can not perform any task connected to the concept. When that happens, it simply is a lack of clarity. There is something that you do not have a clear picture of. Here is another example of clarity in action. If I say picture a dog, many of you immediately can picture one. It could be any dog. Now if I say a picture a Poodle or a Chihuahua, you get a very specific picture a particular type of dog.When we talk or discuss matters of clarity, especially in personal development, self improvement, goal achieving in anything, this is what we are talking about. It is very specific it has a point of reference and you can picture it in your minds eye with detail. We I am pointing out here is the stuff you have a point of reference for.What happens when there is no point of reference such as in a new subject or activity? This is one of the most common errors made with many people, in that, they want wealth or better relationships yet they have no existing reference for it. They have not experienced it nor have any real idea of how to experience it. In order to overcome this one then has to take an action.Should you not have a point of reference then there is only a few things you need to do. One of the things is to educate yourself, on that discipline or find someone who is already experiencing such a thing. Realize that you can not have an “Aha” moment or conceptual understanding of something that you have never experienced or are familiar with. Let me interject here watching “TV” is not a real experience. That type of experience leaves out most of the details along the way, one of them you might call “Work!” The only TV worth watching is educational TV.So let us test something, watch out for “Blassat” are we clear?Clarity then deals with vision, concept and point of reference. Without these components together, there will obviously be a lack of understanding or a vague representation to you in your marvelous mind. The next time a new concept is being introduce, a new idea, ask yourself the question am I clear about this? I believe this will improve your perception of clarity.

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Why Unsecured Personal Loans With No Credit Check Are Possible

There was a time when the mistakes of the past were enough to make getting a loan anytime in the future very difficult indeed – this was especially true when seeking unsecured loans. However, it is possible to get unsecured personal loans with no credit check, which effectively means a bad credit history is ignored.Securing such a loan depends on the applicant ticking some key boxes. And, while in some cases getting loan approval fast can be assured, this depends on the size of the loan and the lender. So, there is nothing guaranteed.However, there is no doubt that the chance to get an unsecured personal loan with which to deal with existing debt is there to take. All that is needed is to meet the basic criteria and prove income is enough to make the repayments.How They WorkBasically, getting unsecured personal loans with no credit checks involves nothing more than the lender ignoring the credit history of the applicant. The thing is that, in doing so, the lender is taking on a large risk. It may depend on the size of the loan, but there is a greater chance that the lender will lose money.For this reason, the interest rate charged is typically higher than normal, while the loan limit is usually quite low. Larger loans can be secured if some collateral is provided, or a cosigner, but then this changes the status of the loan to a secured loan. Nevertheless, getting loan approval fast is practically guaranteed.However, as with any unsecured personal loan, proof that repayments can be made without any problem is essential. So, lenders will take a very careful look at income, and the income-to-debt ratio, to establish the ability to meet repayments.Alternative Loan OptionsThere are other sources for unsecured personal loans with no credit check which are arguably more likely to end in approval. The first is a payday loan, which requires no security but can place real pressure on the borrower through the repayment schedule. The loan is secured against a paycheck, and the repayment schedule can be as short as 30 days.This means that a low loan limit exists, usually only as much as $1,500, so the funds can only help in clearing debts to a certain extent. Also, the interest rate charged is very high. However, getting loan approval fast is guaranteed, so long as the criteria is met.The second option is a family loan, with a family member agreeing to loan the funds needed. As an unsecured personal loan that requires no credit check, this is arguably the best. The terms are informal, which can mean no interest to be paid. However, writing the terms down at the start is important if confusion is to be avoided.Finding the Best TermsLooking online for a lender that is willing to grant unsecured personal loans with no credit check is a sound strategy but it is important to take care when doing so. First of all, draw up a shortlist of the best offers, then check those lenders out with the Better Business Bureau website to ensure they are who they claim to be. When satisfied, contact those lenders directly.Getting loan approval fast is always preferred, but it is better to take time over the issue instead of being caught out with hidden charges. But with enough care, any potholes can be avoided pretty well. Then the unsecured personal loan that is needed can be attained.

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